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In May a shipload of captive West Africans, upon surviving the middle passage , were landed by U. The ship's enslaved passengers included a number of Igbo people from what is now Nigeria. The Igbo were known by planters and slavers of the American South for being fiercely independent and resistant to chattel slavery.

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The chained slaves were packed under the deck of a small vessel named The Schooner York [1] [2] to be shipped to the island other sources say the voyage took place aboard The Morovia [6]. During this voyage the Igbo slaves rose up in rebellion, taking control of the ship and drowning their captors, in the process causing the grounding of the Morovia in Dunbar Creek at the site now locally known as Igbo Landing.

The following sequence of events is unclear, as there are several versions of the revolt's development, some of which are considered mythological.

Apparently the Africans went ashore and subsequently, under the direction of a high Igbo chief among them, walked in unison into the creek singing in the Igbo language "The Water Spirit brought us, the Water Spirit will take us home". They thereby accepted the protection of their god Chukwu and death over the alternative of slavery. Simons Island they took to the swamp, committing suicide by walking into Dunbar Creek.

Simons Island and Sapelo Island. Igbo Landing was the final scene of events which in amounted to a "major act of resistance" by the Africans. These events have had enduring symbolic importance in African-American folklore and literary history. The site was included as a historic resource in a county survey.


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The site bears no official historical marker. A sewage disposal plant [11] was built beside the historical site in the s despite local opposition by African Americans. The site is still routinely visited by historians and tourists.

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The story of the Igbo slaves who chose death over a life of slavery is a recurring story that has taken deep roots in African American and Gullah folklore. As is typical of oral histories, the facts have evolved over time, in many cases taking on mythological aspects. Floyd White, an elderly African American interviewed by the Federal Writers Project [13] in the s is recorded as saying:.

Heard about the Ibo's Landing? That's the place where they bring the Ibos over in a slave ship and when they get here, they ain't like it and so they all start singing and they march right down in the river to march back to Africa, but they ain't able to get there.

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They gets drown. A typical Gullah telling of the events, incorporating many of the recurrent themes that are common to most myths related to the Igbo Landing, is recorded by Linda S. The West Africans upon assessing their situation resolved to risk their lives by walking home over the water rather than submit to the living death that awaited them in American slavery.

As the tale has it, the tribes people disembark from the ship, and as a group, turned around and walked along the water, traveling in the opposite direction from the arrival port. As they took this march together, the West Africans joined in song. They are reported to have sung a hymn in which the lyrics assert that the water spirits will take them home.

While versions of this story vary in nuance, all attest to the courage in rebellion displayed by the enslaved Igbo. Another popular legend associated with Igbo Landing is known as the myth of the flying Africans. It was recorded from various oral sources in the s by members of the Federal Writers Project. Wallace Quarterman, an African American born in , [8] who was interviewed in , when asked if he had heard about the Igbo landing states:. Ain't you heard about them?

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Well, at that time Mr. Blue he was the overseer and Blue he go down one morning with a long whip for to whip them good. Anyway, he whipped them good and they got together and stuck that hoe in the field and then Everybody knows about them. The flying African folktale probably has its historical roots in an collective suicide by newly imported slaves.


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  6. A group of Igbo variously, Ebo or Ibo captives who had survived the middle passage were sold near Savannah, Georgia, and reloaded onto a small ship bound for St. Simon's Island. Off the coast of the island, the enslaved cargo, who had "suffered much by mismanagement," "rose" from their confinement in the small vessel, and revolted against the crew, forcing them into the water where they drowned.

    After the ship ran aground, the Igbos "took to the marsh" and drowned themselves—an act that most scholars have understood as a deliberate, collective suicide.

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    The site of their fatal immersion was named Ebos Landing. The fate of those Igbo in gave rise to a distinctive regional folklore and a place name. Local people claim that the Igbo Landing and surrounding marshes in Dunbar Creek are haunted by the souls of the dead Igbo slaves. In September the St. Simons African-American Heritage Coalition organized a two-day commemoration with events related to Igbo history and a procession to the site. The 75 attendees came from other states, as well as Nigeria, and Belize and Haiti, where similar resistance had taken place.

    They gathered to designate the site as holy ground and give the souls rest. Search Search. Hurricane related information Links to Hurricane Dorian information Find out more. Hydrologic Data at SAWSC We provide current and historical surface-water, groundwater, water quality, water use, and ecological data in various formats map, graphical, tabular.

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    Date published: September 5, Date published: September 2, Date published: August 29, View All News. Year Published: Effects of climate-related variability in storage on streamwater solute concentrations and fluxes in a small forested watershed in the Southeastern United States Streamwater quality can be affected by climate-related variability in hydrologic state, which controls flow paths and affects biogeochemical processes. Aulenbach, Brent T. Cuffney, Thomas F. View Citation. Cuffney, T. Geological Survey Open-File Report —, 31 p. Year Published: Triangle area water supply monitoring project, North Carolina-Summary of monitoring activities, quality assurance, and data, October —September Surface-water supplies are important sources of drinking water for residents in the Triangle area of North Carolina, which is located within the upper Cape Fear and Neuse River Basins.

    Pfeifle, C.